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Metabolism Review 2

Metabolic Pathways (Simplified)


  1. Glycolysis:
    • Glucose is broken down into ATP (energy), high energy electrons and 2 pyruvic acid
    • Occurs in the cytosol (also known as cytoplasm)
    • Anaerobic (does not need oxygen)


Glucose à ATP + e- + pyruvic acid


  1. Citric Acid Cycle
    • Pyruvic acid (from glycoysis) enters the mitochondria
    • Pyruvic acid reacts to create 2-carbon acetyl
    • 2 carbon acetyl combines with coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)
    • Acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetic acid to make citric acid
    • Citric acid breaks down to produce ATP, CO2 and high energy electrons


pyruvic acid à 2 carbon acetyl + coenzyme A à acetyl CoA + oxaloacetic acid à citric acid à ATP + CO2 + high energy electrons


  1. Electron Transport Chain
    • High energy electrons from step 1 and 2 are transferred from enzyme to enzyme in a chain and causes movement of hydrogen ions
    • Needs oxygen for this process (aerobic)
    • Produces ATP and water and heat
    • Occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria


High energy electrons + O2 à ATP + water + heat

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