Numbers and Operations
Natural numbers  The counting numbers (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4....)
Whole numbers  The natural numbers, plus zero (i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4.....)
Integer  A positive or negative whole number, including 0
Eg. ...2, 1, 0, 1, 2...
Multiple  In math, a multiple refers to the numbers that a given number will divide into exactly
Eg. The multiples of 4 are 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28......
Least common multiple (LCM)  The smallest nonzero number that is a common multiple of two or more given numbers.
Eg. The multiples of 3 and 7 are:
Multiples of 3: 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27...
Multiples of 7: 7, 14, 21, 28, 35....
Lowest common denominator (LCD)  The LCM of the given denominators, used in the addition and subtraction of fractions
Eg. For the fractions 5/7 and 2/3, the LCD is 21
Factor  When two or more integers are multiplied together to give a product, each integer is known as a factor of the product
Eg. 1, 2, 4, 8 are factors of 8 since 1 * 8 = 8 and 2 * 4 = 8
Prime number  A whole number greater than 1 that has only two factors, one and itself
Eg. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17.........
Composite number  A number that has factors other than one and itself (all nonprime numbers)
Eg. 4, 6, 8, 9, 10...
Greatest Common Factor (GCF)  The largest factor of two or more numbers that is common to both (all) of them
Eg. The factors of,
25 à 1, 5, 25
35 à 1, 5, 7, 35
Therefore the GCF is 5
Square root  One of two equal factors of a given number
Eg. 4 is the square root of 16
Cube root  One of three equal factors of a particular number
Eg. 3 is the cube root of 27
Reciprocal  Any two numbers that have a product of 1
Eg. 24 * 1/24 = 1; therefore, these two numbers are reciprocals
Ratio  A comparison of quantities with similar units using division
Eg. A ratio can be written in any of the following forms: a to b, a:b, or a/b
Proportion  An equation involving two ratios
Eg. 2:3 = 4:x or 2/3 = 4/x
Lowest terms  When a fraction or ratio is in a form such that the numerator and denominator have no common factors other than 1
Eg. 2/8 is not in lowest terms but 1/4 is in lowest terms
Percent  The % symbol means "per 100" or "over 100." The number is expressed with onehundred as the denominator
Eg. 24% can also be written as 24/100
Distributive Property  You can multiply a number outside the brackets by the sum of the addends or you can multiply that number by each individual addend and get the same result
Eg. a(b + c) = ab + ac
Equation  A mathematical sentence containing an equal sign, numbers and letters (terms), and operational signs
Eg. C = 4 + 5x, or 2 + 4 = 6
Variables  Letters or symbols that represent a number
Eg. For 3x^{2}, x is the variable
Like terms  The terms in an algebraic expression that have the same variables raised to the same power, independent of the order of the variables
Eg. 4x^{2} and 7x^{2} are like terms and 3xy and 17yx are like terms
For other math terminology, refer to the various math dictionaries online.
